Some couples for a variety of reasons, are unable to produce their own genetic gametes (i.e. sperms or eggs) in such cases both donor sperms and donor eggs can be used to produce a donor embryo. The woman uterus is prepared with hormonal tablets to receive the embryo.
Eggs are borrowed from healthy women less then 35 years of age who are not suffering from any medical or genetic disorder. They are screened for infections like HIV, Hepatitis B and C. Married women with one or two kids are preferred as they have proven their fertility. History of caesarean section or tubectomy in the past does not pose any problem and women can still donate their eggs. Ovum donors are usually a relative or friend of the recipient. Ova can also be taken from healthy young volunteers. Egg sharing with other women undergoing IVF cycle is also encouraged after taking consent from both the donor and recipient.
After the basic investigations of ovum donor have been done, the menstrual cycles of donor and recipient are synchronized with medicines. The donor has to visit the OPD about 4-5 times, when she is given injections for formation of multiple eggs in the ovaries. The injections and procedure of egg removal are the same as in IVF with self eggs. The eggs of the donor are removed with a needle under mild anaesthesia there is no stitch or bleeding and she can go back from the hospital after 4-6 hours. The eggs are fertilized using IVF or ICSI. At the same time , the recipient receives medication so that her uterus is well prepared to receive the embryo. Embryo transfer is done in the recipient after ~ 48 hours. Egg donation is thus a boon to many women who otherwise cannot hope to have a pregnancy using their own eggs.